Technological Challenges to Higher Education
a presentation at the CSCU Faculty Advisory Committee Conference: Hurdles on the Horizon on Friday, April 10, 2015 from 8:30am-3:00pm at Manchester Community College in the Savings Bank of Manchester Auditorium located in the Art, Science and Technology Building
Goals of this session
1) challenges and best practices on the uses of technology in education in the Connecticut State Colleges and University system,
2) concerns about the uses of educational technology and their implications on change in learning and teaching, and
3) potential for collaboration for mutual support during times of change for university students, faculty, staff, and administrators.
What do we mean by these terms?
Technological – technology – the study of techniques and tools and their implications for practice
Challenges – a call to engage in a contest or conflict
Higher Education – implies lower education and elevation of learning and teaching, remember – Robert Fulghum (1990). All I Really Need To Know I Learned In Kindergarten. Villard Books: New York, page 6-7. A version may be retrieved from http://www.kalimunro.com/learned_in_kindergarten.html
Reminder about the forms of education –
Smith, M. K. (2001) discusses another moment of educational crisis in the 1970s. From that time, a time of growth in higher education, arose the call for lifelong learning and a re-evaluation of forms of education.
“At around the same time there were moves in UNESCO toward lifelong education and notions of ‘the learning society‘ which culminated in Learning to Be (‘The Faure Report’, UNESCO 1972). Lifelong learning was to be the ‘master concept’ that should shape educational systems (UNESCO 1972:182). What emerged was an influential tripartite categorization of learning systems. It’s best known statement comes from the work of Combs with Prosser and Ahmed (1973):
Formal education: the hierarchically structured, chronologically graded ‘education system’, running from primary school through the university and including, in addition to general academic studies, a variety of specialised programmes and institutions for full-time technical and professional training.
Informal education: the truly lifelong process whereby every individual acquires attitudes, values, skills and knowledge from daily experience and the educative influences and resources in his or her environment – from family and neighbours, from work and play, from the market place, the library and the mass media.
Non-formal education: any organised educational activity outside the established formal system – whether operating separately or as an important feature of some broader activity – that is intended to serve identifiable learning clienteles and learning objectives.”
Recent technology innovations may be categorized into these 3 forms of education:
|Recent technology innovations||Examples or Illustrations|
|and their potential to influence:|
|Formal Education||Open Educational Resources||MERLOT (1997-2015). Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching. Retrieved from http://www.merlot.org/merlot/index.htm|
|Online Curriculum||Khan Academy (2015). Khan Academy. Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/.|
|Blended learning||Ismini Vasileiou (2009). Blended Learning: the transformation of Higher Education Curriculum. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/180710/Blended_Learning_The_transformation_of_Higher_Education_curriculum|
|Flipped learning||Schoolwires, Inc.(2002-2015). Flipped Learning in Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.flippedlearning.org/cms/lib07/VA01923112/Centricity/Domain/41/HigherEdWhitePaper%20FINAL.pdf|
|Personalized learning||IBM (Dec 16, 2013). Personalized Learning: 5 Future Technology Predictions from IBM. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTA5GyWamR0|
|Massive Open Online Courses||Debbie Morrison (Apr 22, 2013). The Ultimate Student Guide to xMOOCs and cMOOCs. Retrieved from http://moocnewsandreviews.com/ultimate-guide-to-xmoocs-and-cmoocso/#ixzz3Wlh9RMB2|
|xMOOCs – university-based||MOOCS.CO (2015). MOOCs Directory. Retrieved from http://www.moocs.co/Higher_Education_MOOCs.html|
|Unbundling higher education||Ryan Craig (3/23/2015). The Next Assault On The Ivory Tower: Unbundling The College Degree. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/schoolboard/2015/03/23/the-next-assault-on-the-ivory-tower-unbundling-the-college-degree/|
|Nonformal Education||badges, certificates||Planning Commission for Higher Education (February 20, 2015). Strategic Master Plan for Higher Education in Connecticut. Retrieved from http://www.cbia.com/govaff/pdf/2015/highereducationcommission.pdf, page 23.|
|cMOOCs – Connectivist||Jeannie Crowley (08/15/13). cMOOCs: Putting Collaboration First. Retrieved from http://campustechnology.com/articles/2013/08/15/cmoocs-putting-collaboration-first.aspx|
|Informal Education||social media||Corporation for National and Community Service (2015). Social Media. Retrieved from http://www.nationalservice.gov/newsroom/social-media|
Visions of the Future
Personalized Learning –
One vision of the future of learning from IBM –
In less than 100 seconds, the producers of an IBM short video envision classrooms within which instruction is tailored for the skills, learning styles, and aspirations of individual students. They close with the query –
“Isn’t learning what’s education is all about?”
In the National Education Technology Plan 2010, also known as Transforming American Education: Learning Powered by Technology, the authors from the US Department of Education (2010) defined personalization as “instruction that is paced to learning needs, tailored to learning preferences, and tailored to the specific interests of different learners. In an environment that is fully personalized, the learning objectives and content as well as the method and pace may all vary (so personalization encompasses differentiation and individualization)” (page 12).
The Gilbert Report (2012) sponsored by the United Kingdom Department for Education and Skills claims that “personalisation is a matter of moral purpose and social justice: pupils from the most is advantaged groups are the least likely to achieve well and participate in higher levels of education or training. Personalisation also reflects wider changes in society, which are likely to continue at an increasing rate. Together, these present the education system with its most acute challenges. They mean that expectations of what all children and young people could and should achieve must be raised, along with schools’ capacity to ensure that outcomes for pupils match those expectations” (page 7). Wolfe, Steinberg, and Hoffman (2013) further suggests that educational technology may liberate the individual to learn anytime and anywhere, not only in the classroom.
Personalized learning, empowered by technology, is seen as an educated hope, “a subversive force when it pluralizes politics by opening up a space for dissent, making authority accountable, and becoming an activating presence in promoting social transformation” (Giroux, 2004). This discussion will also envision personalized learning within a framework described by Terry (1997), “that the continuation and development of the individual and societal learning processes which will transform our culture and enable it to overcome the current crisis without losing sight of what has already been achieved by modernity can only be accomplished by utilising the concept of discourse ethics and of communicative action outlined by Habermas.”
In contrast, Kohn (2015) expressed the following four concerns about personalized learning;
1 The tasks have been personalized for kids, not created by them.
2 Education is about the transmission of bits of information, not the construction of meaning.
3 The main objective is just to raise test scores.
4 It’s all about the tech.
Here are some other visions of the future that you might find challenging:
Velsoft Courseware (Jan 19, 2012). The eLearning Revolution. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dlJshzOv2cw
educause (Jan 27, 2014). Bill Hogue’s Top Five Challenges Facing Higher Education IT. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B2je6gwtCoY
embed code –
2 Revolutions (Mar 1, 2012). The Future of Learning. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xoSJ3_dZcm8
The RSA (Jul 18, 2013). How to Change Education – Ken Robinson. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BEsZOnyQzxQ
Webliography in AlphaBetic Order
Akanegbu, Anuli (February 8, 2013). Personalized Learning Is Sweeping College Campuses, Courtesy of Big Data [#Infographic]. Retrieved from http://www.edtechmagazine.com/higher/article/2013/02/personalized-learning-sweeping-college-campuses-courtesy-big-data
Corporation for National and Community Service (2015). Social Media. Retrieved from http://www.nationalservice.gov/newsroom/social-media
Craig, Ryan (3/23/2015). The Next Assault On The Ivory Tower: Unbundling The College Degree. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/schoolboard/2015/03/23/the-next-assault-on-the-ivory-tower-unbundling-the-college-degree/
Creative Commons (2015). Creative Commons. Retrieved from http://creativecommons.org/
Crowley, Jeannie (08/15/13). cMOOCs: Putting Collaboration First. Retrieved from http://campustechnology.com/articles/2013/08/15/cmoocs-putting-collaboration-first.aspx
Edutopia (November 24, 2014). Open Educational Resources (OER): Resource Roundup. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/open-educational-resources-guide
Giroux, H. A. (2004). When hope is subversive. Tikkun 19(6), 38-40. Retrieved from http://www.henryagiroux.com/online_articles/Tikkun%20piece.pdf on August 5, 2014.
Hooker, Carl (3/24/2015). 6 Steps to Exterminating Innovation in Schools. Retrieved from http://www.techlearning.com/blogentry/9099
IBM (Dec 16, 2013). Personalized Learning: 5 Future Technology Predictions from IBM. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTA5GyWamR0
Khan Academy (2015). Khan Academy. Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/.
Kohn, Alfie (3/25/2015). Four Reasons to Worry About “Personalized Learning”. Retrieved from http://www.techlearning.com/resources/0003/four-reasons-to-worry-about-personalized-learning/69122
MERLOT (1997-2015). Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching. Retrieved from http://www.merlot.org/merlot/index.htm
MOOCS.CO (2015). MOOCs Directory. Retrieved from http://www.moocs.co/Higher_Education_MOOCs.html
Planning Commission for Higher Education (February 20, 2015). Strategic Master Plan for Higher Education in Connecticut. Retrieved from http://www.cbia.com/govaff/pdf/2015/highereducationcommission.pdf
Schoolwires, Inc.(2002-2015). Flipped Learning in Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.flippedlearning.org/cms/lib07/VA01923112/Centricity/Domain/41/HigherEdWhitePaper%20FINAL.pdf
Stoloff, D.L. (2014). Personalized Learning Online: Challenges for Learning and Teaching. Retrieved from https://writingsdls.wordpress.com/personalizedlearningonline/
Smith, M. K. (2001). ‘What is non-formal education?’, the encyclopaedia of informal education. [http://infed.org/mobi/what-is-non-formal-education/ . Retrieved: April 8, 2015].
Terry, P. R. (1997). Habermas and education: Knowledge, communication, discourse. Curriculum Studies, 5(3), 269-279. Retrieved from http://inelmen.boun.edu.tr/amr/erol03/philo03/habermas.pdf on August 5, 2014.
United Kingdom Department for Education and Skills, Gilbert, C. et. al. (2012). 2020 Vision Report of the Teaching and Learning in 2020 Review Group. Retrieved from http://www.lancsngfl.ac.uk/curriculum/assessment/download/file/08%20The%202020%20Vision%20Report1.pdf
Vasileiou, Ismini (2009). Blended Learning: the transformation of Higher Education Curriculum. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/180710/Blended_Learning_The_transformation_of_Higher_Education_curriculum